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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-December 2021
Volume 18 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 67-142

Online since Tuesday, December 21, 2021

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EDITORIAL  

Greetings from ISPN India p. 67
Sandhya Gupta
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_98_21  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Perceived stress and level of coping strategies adopted by working women during current COVID-19 pandemic situation p. 68
Monica Banik, Jyotsna Jacob, Sushil Kumar Maheshwari
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_7_21  
Background: The outbreak of COVID-19 has created a global health crisis that has had a deep impact on the way we perceive our world and our everyday lives and hence causing a significant negative impact on mental health. The uncertainty and low predictability of COVID-19 not only threaten people's physical health, but also affect people's mental health, especially in terms of emotions and cognition. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the level of perceived stress and coping strategies adopted by working women during COVID-19 outbreak. Materials and Methods: An online survey was conducted with a semi-structured questionnaire using nonprobability snowball sampling technique that surveyed 219 individuals through social networking platform. Results: The level of stress was found out to be in severe level but it is also revealed that majority of the women (90.4%) were preoccupied with the thoughts of COVID-19 and reported that they are uncertain about their current situation and about the future. Maximum number of sample (97.7%) revealed that they are unable to cope with the current uncertainty. There was significant association of perceived stress with educational, marital status, and area of living. Conclusion: The study concluded that working women had lot of stress and inadequate coping strategies while dealing with Covid-19 situation. Women should be taught to adapt more coping strategies to deal with this situation.
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The COIVD-19 pandemic first wave and copings among the urban patients in India p. 72
Kannappa V Shetty, Sreevani Rentala, Dayananda Bittenahalli Omkarappa, Sanjeev Kumar Manikappa, Urmila Bamney
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_34_21  
Context: The COVID-19 pandemic first wave has had a huge psychological impact on COVID patients living in urban areas. Materials and Methods: The study adopted a descriptive research design to determine the coping strategies among home isolated patients with COVID-19 in urban districts of south India. The convenient sampling technique was used to select 60 persons infected with COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic as sample of the study. The coping strategies were assessed by using the Brief COPE Inventory scale. It has 28 statements which can identify 14 possible coping strategies and sociodemographic data were collected through the telephonic interview method. Results and Conclusions: Negative coping strategies such as denial and self-blame were found high, and positive coping strategies such as active coping, use of emotional support, use of instrumental support, venting, positive reframing, planning, and religion were reported to high among COVID patients in urban areas. The study suggests providing at least psychological first aid to reduce mental distress during isolation/quarantine.s
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Gender differences in anxiety, depression, and self-esteem among children of alcoholics p. 78
Dayananda Bittenahalli Omkarappa, Sreevani Rentala, Prasanthi Nattala
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_13_21  
Background: Children growing up in families with alcohol abuse are at high risk for anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem. The published studies mainly focused on the gender difference in behavioral problems among normal children, but only limited studies are focused on gender difference in anxiety, depression, and self-esteem among children of alcoholics (COAs). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey research design was adopted for the present study. The study was conducted at selected government high school located in Bangalore South. The simple random sampling technique was used to select the participants for the study. COA screening test (modified) and pediatric symptom checklist were used for identifying COAs and behavioral problems. Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were used to assess anxiety, depression, and self-esteem, respectively. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software package (Version 23). Results: The results showed that there is no statistically significant difference in mean scores of anxiety, depression, self-esteem, separation anxiety, social phobia, obsessive–compulsive problems, and physical injury between boys and girls COAs. Mean scores of generalized anxiety are high in boys compared to girls COAs. Conclusion: The study concluded that there is no gender difference in anxiety, depression, and self-esteem among COAs.
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Assessment on prevalence and risk factors of dyslexia among primary school students Highly accessed article p. 84
R Rajesh, Honeymol Sunney
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_18_21  
Background: Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that affects reading skills and language processing. Children with dyslexia have difficulty in reading, writing, spelling, grammar or in speaking. Due to these difficulty, the child may be slow in academics, social skills, difficult in manage their daily activities, emotional problems etc. which may lead to long-term educational problems. Aim: To assess the prevalence and explore the risk factors of dyslexia among the primary school students in selected schools. To assess the prevalence of dyslexia among primary school students. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of dyslexia among primary school students. To find out association between the prevalence of dyslexia and selected socio-demographic variables of primary school students. Methodology: A non-experimental study with explorative survey descriptive research design was used. The study was conducted in R.L.Jalappa central school, Tamaka, Kolar. Non-probability convenient sampling technique was adopted in order to select the samples of 100 primary school students who fulfill the selection criteria. The data was collected from the primary school students along with the help of their teachers by using screening checklist for dyslexia which consists of 30 items adopted from British Dyslexia Association (BDA) and a checklist on identifying the risk factors of dyslexia on primary school students which has 10 items through interview method on one to one basis until the desired sample is reached. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used for analyzing the data. Results: Regarding age in years, 56% of the students were 08 years old, 43% were female students & 57% were male students; class of studying 50% were from 1st standard, another 50% of them were from 2nd standard;44% of the students' academic performance were good with50 % of them were found to be average. The prevalence regarding dyslexia among primary school students on screening were identified as 06% of them with dyslexia and remaining 94% of the students are without dyslexia. In regard to the risk factors concerning to dyslexia in these primary school students; 06 % of them had pre-school language impairment, 04% had some vision/sight problems, 15% of the students were found impulsive in nature: 04% of them had motor coordination difficulty with some developmental problems and almost all the students 100% had normal level of intelligence. Conclusion: The present findings of the study states that the primary school students may be at risk for not attaining full literacy skills due to various risk factors. Early screening with all children in school and intense intervention services should focus on the students who demonstrate the warning signs of dyslexia and related problems in the best way to prevent from becoming more severe in overtime and for better outcomes.
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Relationship between parenting practices and behavioral problems of children attending a Tertiary Mental Health Institute of North East India p. 89
Amina Ahmed, A Baruah, LB Siddeswara
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_20_21  
Introduction: The parent plays a vital role in promoting and supporting the overall development of children from infancy to adulthood. Parenting practices are related to different outcomes in children's life. Hence, the researcher aimed to assess the relationship between parenting practices and behavioral problems of children. Subjects and Methods: A quantitative approach and correlational design was used. Total 80 primary caregivers of children (6–17 years), attending a Tertiary Mental Health Institute of North East India were selected using systematic random sampling technique. Data were collected using Sociodemographic Pro forma, Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire after obtaining written informed consent from the participants. Results: Overall 55% of the participants had scored toward more positive parenting practices and 56.2% toward less negative parenting practices. Regarding behavioral problems of children, 77.5% had total difficulty levels in the abnormal range with 52.5% at substantial risk for emotional symptoms, 78.8% for conduct problems, 43.8% for hyperactivity/inattention, and 73.8% for peer problems. Participant's negative parenting practices were positively correlated with total difficulty score as well as with conduct problems, hyperactivity, and peer problems. Finding further showed that participant's positive parenting practices had a significant association with their educational status, occupation, family income, place of residence, children's birth order, use of mobile phone by children, and negative parenting practices had a significant association with their history of substance use, fights between parent, and children's last academic performance. These findings can be incorporated for developing intervention module for parents of children in the hospital setting as well as in the community.
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Level of depression among cancer patient: A cross-sectional study p. 95
Ritu Dahiya, Aashish Parihar, Mukesh Kumar Swami, Sanjay Sevak
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_25_21  
Introduction: Cancer is a major public health problem throughout the world. Globally, cancer is the second leading cause of death, new cases were 18.1 million, and cancer was responsible for an estimated 9.6 million deaths in the year 2018. Cancer increases the risk of psychiatric diseases, and one-third of patients with cancer has mental health disorders and is in need of appropriate psychological treatment. Anxiety and depression are widely common psychological distresses among most patients with cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the level of depression among cancer patients. Methodology: The present study was a nonexperimental cross-sectional research design with quantitative approach was conducted on a sample of 400 cancer patients at AIIMS, Jodhpur. The participants were selected by consecutive sampling, and data were collected through face-to-face interview among patients with cancer. A self-reported questionnaire on demographic, clinical profile, and level of depression was assessed by standardized scale PHQ-9. Results: The present study revealed the level of depression among cancer patients, out of them 8.8% were having minimal depression, followed by 20.3% mild depression, 39.8% moderate depression, 17.8% moderately severe depression, and 13.5 were having severe depression. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggested that cancer diagnosis generates a higher sense of distress and leads to cause depression whether minimal or severe. Results of the study show that there is no association between level of depression and selected demographic variables of the study as per Chi-square analysis.
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Screen dependency versus child nourishment among toddlers: A correlational study p. 100
Suresh Velumani, Meera Panchal, Bhoomika Patel
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_32_21  
Background: Screen viewing has become predominant among children aged under 3 years that causing massive health issues. Nowadays, most of the young kids developed a habit of having food by watching smartphone. Seventy-seven percentage toddlers are using mobile phones every day. Researcher strongly believes that this habit among toddlers is linked, with either overweight or undernutrition. Aim: The present research study aimed to explore the relationship between screen dependency and its effects on child's nourishment. Settings and Design: An explorative-correlational study was carried out on 280 toddlers. Toddlers were selected using quota sampling, and data were collected from areas of Vadodara district. Subjects and Methods: A structured screen dependency questionnaire was used. Subsequently, toddler nourishment was assessed by using Gomez's classification scale. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to analyze the data by using SPSS-20 software. Linear regression analysis revealed that toddler nourishment was influenced by the level of screen dependency. Results: The majority toddlers 47.9% (n = 134) were severely dependent on screen, and child nourishment among them resulted that 43.9% (n = 123) were overweight, 2.9% (n = 89) found obese, and 28.2% (n = 79) were belong to malnutrition, the rest were normal. The linear regression analysis showed that screen dependency was significantly correlated with child nourishment beta coefficient (R = 0.321, P = 0.00) at significance of 0.05 level. Conclusions: The present study concluded that there is an influence of screen dependency on child's nourishment. Therefore, the policymakers should also increase the awareness regarding negative impact of screen viewing to the mothers.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Emotional intelligence: What is it and how can it transform your life? p. 106
Harpreet Singh Dhillon, Shibu Sasidharan, Gurpreet Kaur Dhillon, Babitha Manalikuzhiyil
DOI:10.4103/ijpn.iopn_35_21  
Emotional intelligence (EI) is a social intelligence distinct from academic intelligence and assists us in successfully comprehending complex personal, social, and professional situations. The four components of EI are perceiving, understanding, managing, and using emotions to enable better adaptability and creativity. In this review, the authors have examined the existing literature on the contemporary concepts of EI construct, the available means to measure it, and its implications across various life situations with special emphasis on the lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The necessity for research into multiple intelligences (cultural, practical, and spiritual) is further discussed in the way forward.
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Perceived stress in cancer patients: An integrative review p. 112
Firdousa Jan, Maharaj Singh, Syed Nisar
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_4_21  
Cancer is disease that many people fear and despise. Cancer is associated with significant psychological and social morbidity. As a result of the disease, cancer patients can experience physical, emotional, and social stress. One of the key factors linked to cancer initiation, development, and metastasis is perceived stress. The aim of this integrative analysis is to assess the literature on cancer patients' perceptions of stress, its relationship to cancer, and health problems associated with perceived stress in cancer patients. A search of Pub Med, CINAHL, Psycho Data, Springer science direct, and the descriptors level of perceived stress and cancer patients between 2000 and 2020 yielded 24 studies that met the review criteria. The following were the examination questions: (1) What is the relationship between perceived stress and cancer? (2) What health issues are associated with perceived stress in cancer patients? Findings support the prevalence of perceived stress in many cancer patients, as well as its connection to other health concerns. Patients' perceptions of stress are linked to cancer, and their general health is affected. It is critical for nurses to measure perceived stress, recognize stressors, and their effect on cancer patients' health and quality of life. Not only oncology nurses, but also all nurses, will benefit from a better understanding of how patients with various forms of cancer experience stress.
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CONCEPT PAPER Top

Cognitive stimulation (an approach to cognitive impairment) time for action now! p. 125
Sonia Singh, Achla Dagdu Gaikwad
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_52_21  
"Gold agers are our worthy blessing, value, and assist them to live with dignity" Aging is a natural unrestrictive and irreversible process and an age of change in all dimensions including physical, psychological, social, and environmental. Cognition simply means to the psychological processes and activities related to understanding things, making judgments, memory, and reasoning in comparison to emotional and volitional process. The decrement of this cognitive function is known as cognitive impairment. Old age is the age of cognitive impairment the time for action is now! As increasing age is the greatest risk factor for cognitive impairment as its prevalence rate is found high worldwide, and as the baby boomer generation passes age 65, the number of people living with cognitive impairment is expected to jump dramatically. The prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment have been an important need and responsibility of the health sector area. Apart from the pharmacotherapy, there are other approaches and programs such as occupational therapy, environmental approach, brain training, dietary plan, executive cognitive structuring program, and cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) found effective in improving cognitive functions. CST has been popular, cost-effective, and successful for improving cognitive function and it is theme-based multicomponent therapy which focuses on cognitive abilities and can be given by the professional nurses, an occupational therapist, or a caregiver. The current concept article throws a flashlight on CST as a therapeutic approach to stimulate cognitive functions in geriatrics.
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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Top

Culture, brain, and behavior: Exploring the links p. 129
Sujita Kumar Kar, SM Yasir Arafat
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_43_21  
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Metabolic syndrome during COVID-19: A potential public health crisis? p. 131
Jothimani Gurusamy
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_24_21  
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Pen down your emotions-for a better you p. 134
Alwin Issac
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_30_21  
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VIEWPOINT Top

Early intervention for developmental delay: Nurses' role in parental skill enhancement p. 136
Radhakrishnan Govindan, Rajalakshmi Ramu
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_39_21  
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REPORT Top

Online learning: Indian nurses' perception and a feasibility study p. 138
G Balamurugan, Radhakrishnan Govindan, M Vijayarani
DOI:10.4103/iopn.iopn_86_21  
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