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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 147-151

A study to assess the prevalence of nomophobia among nursing students in Kollam


1 Professor and HoD, Department of Mental Health Nursing, Bishop Benziger College of Nursing, Kollam, Kerala, India
2 Principal, Bishop Benziger College of Nursing, Kollam, Kerala, India
3 Lecturer, Department of Mental Health Nursing, Bishop Benziger College of Nursing, Kollam, Kerala, India
4 Clinical Instructor, Department of Mental Health Nursing, Bishop Benziger College of Nursing, Kollam, Kerala, India

Date of Submission10-Dec-2021
Date of Decision02-Apr-2022
Date of Acceptance04-May-2022
Date of Web Publication27-Dec-2022

Correspondence Address:
Prof. S Anand
Bishop Benziger College of Nursing, Kollam, Kerala
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/iopn.iopn_94_21

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  Abstract 


Introduction: Nomophobia is an emerging human behavior stemming from widespread mobile phone use. Discovering the prevalence of nomophobia among nursing students is important as the use of smartphone in clinical practice may cause distraction affecting the quality of care and putting patients' safety at risk. Furthermore, it can lead to poorer academic performance. Materials and Methods: Quantitative approach with descriptive cross-sessional design was used in this study. The study was conducted in Bishop Benziger College of Nursing, Upasana College of Nursing, VNSS College of Nursing, and Holy Cross College of Nursing, Kollam, Kerala. The target populations were BSc nursing students. The purposive sampling technique was used to collect the data. Formal permission was taken by the institutional ethics committee and consent from the nursing students and data were collected through Google Forms. The tools used consisted of Demographics Pro forma and Standardized Nomophobia Questionnaire which is 7-point self-reporting questionnaire (not at all nomophobia, mild nomophobia, moderate nomophobia, and severe nomophobia). The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The mean age of the participants was 21 years. More than 50% of nursing students use smartphone for about 5 h daily. Totally, 42% of nursing students having the habit of checking their smartphone <10 times/day. Nursing students affected by severe nomophobia were very minimal that were only 2%. (moderate 33%, mild 54%, and no nomophobia 11%). The prevalence rate of nomophobia among nursing students was 34.84. Significant association was found between nomophobia among nursing students and demographic variables such as level of study, smartphone use duration, frequency of checking phones, and frequency of checking phone episodes at 0.05 level. Conclusion: Smartphone addiction is a growing phenomenon in the current world. Online classes are influencing the duration of smartphone use. More than 50% of the private college nursing students are having mild nomophobia.

Keywords: Nomophobia, nursing, prevalence, smartphone, students


How to cite this article:
Anand S, Anoopa K R, Joseph PG, Raju S. A study to assess the prevalence of nomophobia among nursing students in Kollam. Indian J Psy Nsg 2022;19:147-51

How to cite this URL:
Anand S, Anoopa K R, Joseph PG, Raju S. A study to assess the prevalence of nomophobia among nursing students in Kollam. Indian J Psy Nsg [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Jan 29];19:147-51. Available from: https://www.ijpn.in/text.asp?2022/19/2/147/365479




  Introduction Top


Nomophobia is categorized as a special phobia of being out of mobile phone contact. It is a modern age phobia introduced in our lives as a repercussion of the interaction between people and mobile phone information and communication technologies. Nomophobia refers to a form of behavioral addiction toward smartphone associated with the anxiety caused by the detachment from the mobile network or inability to have access to a smartphone. Nomophobia is an abbreviated form of No – Mobile – phone – phobia. The term was first coined in a 2008 study that was commissioned by the United Kingdom postal office. In a sample of more than 2100 adults, the study indicated that more than 50% of the participants experienced nomophobia.[1]

The intrusiveness and persuasiveness of smartphones have developed negative habits among young people that can be assimilated to compulsive behaviors such as constantly checking the phone for missed messages or calls, checking if there is an available web connection, keeping the phone on 24 h a day, never going out without the mobile phone, and using the phone even during a conversation with another person who is therefore ignored.[2]

In the health-care setting, nomophobia seems to be widespread, which can have serious repercussions on patients and compromise their health because they can lead to neglecting essential tasks and forgetting important patient data making careless mistakes and causing a reduction in the quality of the treatments provided.[3]

Objectives

  1. To assess the prevalence of nomophobia among nursing students at Kollam
  2. To assess the association between nomophobia among nursing students and selected demographic variables.



  Materials and Methods Top


  • Approach: Quantitative approach
  • Design: Descriptive cross-sessional design
  • Population: Private college nursing students
  • Sample: Private college nursing students in Kollam
  • Sampling technique: Purposive sampling technique
  • Setting: Bishop Benziger College of Nursing, Upasana College of Nursing, VNSS College of Nursing, and Holy Cross College of Nursing in Kollam, Kerala
  • Data collection method: Using a self-reported questionnaire through Google Forms.


Inclusion criteria

  1. First year to final year BSc nursing students who are studying in private nursing colleges in Kollam
  2. BSc nursing students of both sexes.


Exclusion criteria

  1. BSc nursing students who are not willing to participate in this study.


Data collection process

We communicated the purpose and significance of the study with the participants through the college authority in advance and the data collection process was scheduled. Data were collected through Google Forms.

Ethical approval and informed consent

Formal permission received from the college authority and consent letter from the participants. Formal permission received from the institutional ethic committee. IEC NO: BBCON/1781/'21.

Tool

  • Section A – Demographic Pro forma: It includes demographic variables such as age, level of study, family monthly income, locality, father education, mother education, smartphone usage per day, smartphone use duration, Internet usage, frequency of phone checking per day, intervals between checking phone episodes, and duration of smartphone use per day
  • Section B – Standardized Nomophobia Questionnaire.


Reliability

The investigators have adopted the research tool prepared by the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Almeria, Andalusia, Spain. The researcher has been found the reliability r = 0.93 Cronbach's alpha coefficient. (Pearson's correlation coefficient r = 0.805, P < 0.001).

Analysis

  • Descriptive analysis


    1. Frequency and percentages distribution of subjects as per demographic variables
    2. Prevalence of nomophobia among private nursing college students.


  • Inferential analysis


    1. Association between nomophobia among nursing students and selected demographic variables using Chi-square test.



  Results Top


The study was conducted at Bishop Benziger College of Nursing, Upasana College of Nursing, VNSS College of Nursing, and Holy Cross College of Nursing, Kollam, Kerala. A total of 643 nursing students were participated. Totally, 50% of the BSc nursing students coming under the age group of 19 to 20 years. Mainly, 29% of students belong to BSc Nursing I year and 27% of students studying in BSc Nursing IV year. Nearly, equal percentages of participation from each area of living such as rural, urban, and semi-urban. The smartphone use duration per day of participants was 33% for 1 to 2 h. Only 13% of the participants were using smartphones <1 h. The frequency of checking phones of participants is that 42% of the participants check their phones <10 times/day. However, totally, 9% of the participant checking phones more than 30 times.

The prevalence rate of nomophobia among private college nursing students was34.84. Nomophobia is associated with level of study, smartphone use duration per day, frequency of times of checking phones, and frequency of checking phone episodes at 0.05 level of significance.

Percentage distribution of participants as per demographic variables

As given in [Figure 1], the age variables of participants is that 50% of the BSc nursing students coming under the age group of 19 to 20 years. Very minimal number of students belongs to the age group of above 23 years.
Figure 1: Percentage-wise distribution of participants according to age

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As given in [Figure 2], the level of study of participants is that 29% of students belong to BSc Nursing I year and 27% of students studying in BSc Nursing IV year. The remaining students belong to II and III years, respectively.
Figure 2: Percentage-wise distribution of participants according to the level of study

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As given in [Figure 3], the locality of participants is that nearly equal percentages of participation from each area of living.
Figure 3: Percentage-wise distribution of participants according to locality

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As given in [Figure 4], the smartphone use duration per day of participants is that 33% use their phone for 1 to 2 h. Only 13% of the participants are using smartphones <1 h. Respectively, 9% of the participants use mobile phone for 4 to 5 h and more than 5 h.
Figure 4: Percentage-wise distribution of participants according to smartphone use duration per day

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As given in [Figure 5], the frequency of checking phones of participants is that 42% of the participants check their phone <10 times/day. Next to that, 37% of the participants check between 10 and 20 times/day. However, totally, 9% of the participants checking phone more than 30 times.
Figure 5: Percentage-wise distribution of participants according to the frequency of checking mobile phones

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Level of prevalence of nomophobia among nursing students

Prevalence as given in [Table 1] found that 2% of the participants are severely addicted to nomophobia. Among 643 participants, more than 50% of them were affected by mild nomophobia. Eleven percent of the private nursing college students are no nomophobia.
Table 1: Prevalence of nomophobia among private college nursing students

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Significant association was found between nomophobia and demographic variables such as the level of study, duration of smartphone use, frequency of phone checking, and intervals between checking phone episodes. No significant association was found between nomophobia among nursing students and demographic variables such as age, monthly income of thefamily, locality, education of parents, and smartphone usage per day [Table 2].
Table 2: Association between nomophobia among nursing students and selected demographic variables using the Chi-square test

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  Discussion Top


A cross-sectional descriptive design was used with convenient sampling.

The study revealed that 83.7% of the participants use smartphone during their work and 24.7% were distracted by smartphones during their work. Only 15.7% agreed with the policy for restrictions smartphone use in hospitals.[4] A study to examine the effect of problematic Internet use, social appearance anxiety, and social media use on nursing students' nomophobia level was conducted on 755 undergraduate nursing students. The study found that nomophobia levels had a positively moderate relationship with problematic Internet use (r = 0.259, P < 0.001), social appearance anxiety (r = 0.320 P < 0.001), and social media use levels (r = 0.433, P < 0.001).[5] A study was conducted to examine the relationship between student nurses nomophobia level and obesity and self-esteem. A descriptive correlational study with a sample of 607 nursing students. The study result showed that students had moderate nomophobia. There was no significant relationship between nomophobia and obesity and self-esteem.[6]


  Conclusion Top


Mobile phone has gradually occupied a major part of technocultural across the global since it was first introduced. The increased utilization and pervasion of the mobile phone, the new art technology and virtual communication tool including computers, tablets, and smartphones have influenced people's daily routines. Nomophobia or mobile phone addition is recently perceived as a psychological disorder resulting from the excessive use of new technology and virtual communication. Nomophobia refer to discomfort, anxiety, and nervousness caused by being out of contact with a mobile phone.

Acknowledgment

We are thankful to the Principals of the colleges for the support to conduct the study. We would like to thank the ethic committee considering this topic. Specially thanks to Dr. Sindha Mentaz who helped in literature review and finalized the publication process.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Bhattacharya S, Bashar MA, Srivastava A, Singh A. NOMOPHOBIA: NO MObile PHone PhoBIA. J Family Med Prim Care 2019;8:1297-300.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
2.
King AL, Valença AM, Nardi AE. Nomophobia: The mobile phone in panic disorder with agoraphobia: Reducing phobias or worsening of dependence? Cogn Behav Neurol 2010;23:52-4.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Aguilera-Manrique G, Márquez-Hernández VV, Alcaraz-Córdoba T, Granados-Gámez G, Gutiérrez-Puertas V, Gutiérrez-Puertas L. The relationship between nomophobia and the distraction associated with smartphone use among nursing students in their clinical practicum. PLoS One 2018;13:e0202953.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Cho S, Lee E. Distraction by smartphone use during clinical practice and opinions about smartphone restriction policies: A cross-sectional descriptive study of nursing students. Nurse Educ Today 2016;40:128-33.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Ayar D, Özalp Gerçeker G, Özdemir EZ, Bektaş M. The effect of problematic internet use, social appearance anxiety, and social media use on nursing students' nomophobia levels. Comput Inform Nurs 2018;36:589-95.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Çelik İnce S. Relationship between nomophobia of nursing students and their obesity and self-esteem. Perspect Psychiatr Care 2021;57:753-60.  Back to cited text no. 6
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

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Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
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