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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 109-111

Relationship between emotionally unstable personality disorder and remembered parenting style - A pilot study from private tertiary care center


1 Department of Clinical Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
2 Department of Psychiatric Social Work, Dharwad Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Dharwad, India
3 Department of Psychiatry, Abhaya Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Date of Submission13-Nov-2021
Date of Decision18-Dec-2021
Date of Acceptance03-Jan-2022
Date of Web Publication27-Dec-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Kannappa V Shetty
Department of Psychiatric Social Work, Dharwad Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/iopn.iopn_90_21

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  Abstract 


Introduction: Emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD) is a type of personality disorder which is characterized by symptoms, such as highly volatile mood, high impulsivity, unstable relationships, and self-harming behavior. Studies indicate that an individual's personality is an outcome of various factors, their parental upbringing being one of the major factors. Materials and Methods: The study aimed at exploring remembered parental style in patients diagnosed with EUPD. Ten patients were recruited from a tertiary care psychiatric hospital, and parental bonding instrument and clinical global impressions scale were administered. Results: The mean age of the patients with EUPD was 28.8 ± 7.77 years, and the mean years of education was found to be 15.4 ± 1.66. Mean age of onset of illness was 23.71 years, and the mean severity score was found to be 4.8. The mean mother's care score was found to be 25.6 ± 7.17 and mother's overprotection score was found to be 11.2 ± 5.53. The mean father's care score was found to be 20 ± 11.28 and father's overprotection score was 12.1 ± 6.38. Conclusions: The study findings reveal involvement of authoritarian parenting style in fathers and neglectful parenting style in mothers in the development of EUPD. However, a more comprehensive study with larger sample size is needed to throw more light over this finding.

Keywords: Emotionally unstable personality disorder, parenting style, psychosocial interventions


How to cite this article:
Srivastava P, Shetty KV, Anjanappa J. Relationship between emotionally unstable personality disorder and remembered parenting style - A pilot study from private tertiary care center. Indian J Psy Nsg 2022;19:109-11

How to cite this URL:
Srivastava P, Shetty KV, Anjanappa J. Relationship between emotionally unstable personality disorder and remembered parenting style - A pilot study from private tertiary care center. Indian J Psy Nsg [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Jan 29];19:109-11. Available from: https://www.ijpn.in/text.asp?2022/19/2/109/365478




  Introduction Top


Emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD) is a type of personality disorder which is characterized by symptoms, such as highly volatile mood, high impulsivity, unstable relationships, and self-harming behavior including suicidal threats and gestures.[1] It is one of the most prevalent personality disorders, marking 30%–60% of the personality disorder cases.[2] It is well known that an individual's personality is an outcome of various factors, their parental upbringing being one of the major factors.

Baumrind, an American developmental psychologist, theorized three parental styles on the basis of warmth and control. These three styles were authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive.[3] Maccoby and Martin further classified permissive style into permissive and uninvolved.[4] Authoritative parents are believed to demonstrate a perfect balance of control and warmth. This style of parenting is considered an ideal one. The children as an outcome of this parenting become independent, socially responsible, and fully functional individuals. Linehan's biosocial theory suggests that development of borderline personality disorder symptoms depends on two things, individual's emotional vulnerability, as well as their upbringing environment.[5]

Literature also indicates that EUPD patients have experience more negative effect compared to healthy individuals,[6],[7] and low level of stress tolerance and coping is found in EUPD patients.[8] Further, they specify that this deficit in stress tolerance leads to the development of EUPD symptoms.[2] This fact can be linked with style of parenting which induces more stress in the kids than required. It too indicates toward the possibility of uninvolved parenting playing a role in the development of these symptoms since it does not educate a child on proper stress management. Thus, the current study was aimed at exploring the role of remembered parenting style in people with EUPD.


  Materials and Methods Top


Aim

In this study, we were trying to look deeper into the remembered parental styles of the patients diagnosed with emotionally unstable personality disorder.

Study participants

Ten patients suffering from EUPD were recruited from a tertiary care private psychiatric hospital (Abhaya Hospital), Bengaluru. The diagnosis was done by team of mental health professionals (psychiatrist, clinical psychologist, and psychiatric social worker).

Instruments

Sociodemographic details were taken using a sociodemographic pro forma. Parental bonding instrument (PBI)[9] was used as a retrospective scale for rating the parenting style of the subject's parents according to their memory. Clinical global impressions scale–severity scale[10] was used to rate the severity of the symptoms of EUPD.

Procedure

The study followed exploratory research design and convenient sampling method. 10 patients who were diagnosed with EUPD/BPD were recruited from a tertiary private care center. Ethical clearance was obtained from the institutional review board. The test procedure was explained to them in detail and consent was taken. Those patients who consented for the study were recruited. The tests were administered on them.

Data analysis

All analysis was performed using SPSS16.0 (IBM United Kingdom Limited, Surrey, UK), and descriptive statistics were computed on demographic variables and remembered parenting style.


  Results Top


[Table 1] enlists the detailed descriptive statistics of the patients. The mean age of the patients with EUPD was 28.8 ± 7.77 years and the mean years of education was found to be 15.4 ± 1.66. The mean years of father's education was 14.1 ± 2.51 and the mean years of mother's education was 11.1 ± 4.65. The mean percentage of father's involvement was 57%, mean percentage of mother's involvement in patient's life was 76%, mean age of onset of illness was 23.71 years, mean duration of illness was 4.64 years, and mean severity score was found to be 4.8.
Table 1: Sociodemographic variables of the respondents (n=10)

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[Table 2] reveals the relationship with parenting style of the EUPD patients. The mean mother's care score was found to be 25.6 ± 7.17 and mean mother's overprotection score was found to be 11.2 ± 5.53. The mean father's care score was found to be 20 ± 11.28 and mean father's overprotection score was 12.1 ± 6.38. Neglectful parenting style from mother and authoritarian parenting style from father were reported as average remembered parenting style by these patients
Table 2: Relationship with parenting style of the respondents

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  Discussion Top


The mean value for age was 28.8 and this points out to the idea that as per the patient's prevalence in the tertiary care hospital from where the data were collected, EUPD disorder is predominant in young adults. The mean years of education was found to be 15.4 which signifies that in spite of the illness, the education years is not very harmed as most of the patients had completed their graduation.

Mean percentage of father's involvement was 57% and mother's involvement in patient's life was 76%. This might be due to the fact that in India, mother plays a more important role in overall social and emotional development of the child.[11] Further, most of the mothers were reported to be homemakers in the current study. This might also throw some light on the reason behind high involvement of the mothers.

The mean mother's care score was found to be 25.6 and mean mother's overprotection score was found to be 11.2. This depicts low care and low control, i.e., neglectful parenting as per the PBI scale. This finding is in line with the findings of the study conducted by Parker et al.,[9] wherein they found that uninvolved parenting style can be linked with personality disorders.

The mean father's care score was found to be 20 and mean father's overprotection score was 12.1 which is almost near the cutoff score of 12.5. This depicts low care high protection, i.e., affectionless control, according to PBI scale and authoritarian parenting.[3] This finding agrees with a Russian study finding where personality disorders and aggression were linked with authoritarian style parenting.[12] A systematic review also found similar findings wherein neglectful and authoritarian parenting style was connected with development of EUPD.[13] Another study on parental support highlights the importance of it on overall mental and psychological well-being, self-worth, and self-control of child.[14] A study on depression patients found that they remember their parents to be overprotective and uncaring compared to the healthy population.[15] Similar studies report that people remembering uninvolved parenting style of their parents had higher chances of being diagnosed with personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and depression.[9],[16]

The biggest limitation of the study was its sample size. Due to unavailability of the patients and the sample collected was of 10 patients only. Such a small sample size is deemed unfit for statistical tests. Another big limitation was the absence of control group.


  Conclusions Top


The study findings reveal involvement of authoritarian parenting style in father and neglectful parenting style in mothers in the development of EUPD and the study suggests that effective parenting training could be helpful in preventing the same.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Biskin RS, Paris J. Diagnosing borderline personality disorder. CMAJ 2012;184:1789-94.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Carpenter RW, Trull TJ. Components of emotion dysregulation in borderline personality disorder: A review. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2013;15:335.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Baumrind D. Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genet Psychol Monogr 1967;75:43-88.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Maccoby E, Martin J. Socialization in the context of the family: Parent-child interaction. In: Mussen PH, Hetherington EM, editors. Handbook of Child Psychology. Socialization, Personality and Social Development. Vol. 4. New York: Wiley; 1983. p. 1-101.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Linehan M. Skills Training Manual for Treating Borderline Personality Disorder. New York: Guilford Press; 1993.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Bland AR, Williams CA, Scharer K, Manning S. Emotion processing in borderline personality disorders. Issues Ment Health Nurs 2004;25:655-72.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Nica EI, Links PS. Affective instability in borderline personality disorder: Experience sampling findings. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2009;11:74-81.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Leyro TM, Zvolensky MJ, Bernstein A. Distress tolerance and psychopathological symptoms and disorders: A review of the empirical literature among adults. Psychol Bull 2010;136:576-600.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Parker FL, Boak AY, Griffin KW, Ripple C, Peay L. Parent-child relationship, home learning environment, and school readiness. Sch Psychol Rev 1999;28:413-25.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Guy W. ECDEU assessment manual for psychopharmacology: US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service. Maryland: National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH); 1976.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Kurtz SN. All the Mothers are One: Hindu India and the Cultural Reshaping of Psychoanalysis. New York: Columbia University Press; 1992.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Nelson DA, Coyne SM, Swanson SM, Hart CH, Olsen JA. Parenting, relational aggression, and borderline personality features: Associations over time in a Russian longitudinal sample. Dev Psychopathol 2014;26:773-87.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Boucher MÈ, Pugliese J, Allard-Chapais C, Lecours S, Ahoundova L, Chouinard R, et al. Parent-child relationship associated with the development of borderline personality disorder: A systematic review. Personal Ment Health 2017;11:229-55.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Steinberg L, Silk JS. Parenting adolescents. In Bornstein MH (Ed.), Handbook of parenting: Children and parenting. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. US: New jersey 2002.p. 103–33.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Shah R, Waller G. Parental style and vulnerability to depression: The role of core beliefs. J Nerv Ment Dis 2000;188:19-25.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Gerlsma C, Emmelkamp PM, Arrindell WA. Anxiety, depression, and perception of early parenting: A meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev 1990;10:251-77.  Back to cited text no. 16
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

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