|Year : 2021 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 136-137
Early intervention for developmental delay: Nurses' role in parental skill enhancement
Radhakrishnan Govindan, Rajalakshmi Ramu
Department of Nursing, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
|Date of Submission||20-May-2021|
|Date of Acceptance||17-Jun-2021|
|Date of Web Publication||21-Dec-2021|
Mrs. Rajalakshmi Ramu
Department of Nursing, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bengaluru - 560 029, Karnataka
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Govindan R, Ramu R. Early intervention for developmental delay: Nurses' role in parental skill enhancement. Indian J Psy Nsg 2021;18:136-7
|How to cite this URL:|
Govindan R, Ramu R. Early intervention for developmental delay: Nurses' role in parental skill enhancement. Indian J Psy Nsg [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Jul 1];18:136-7. Available from: https://www.ijpn.in/text.asp?2021/18/2/136/332798
Children's Developmental Delays, Disorders, its early identification and interventions are constantly acknowledged in Indian literatures. The main focus is to enhance the normal child development, early identification of developmental delays and disorders. "Excellent early intervention services can modify the child's developmental path and improve outcomes for children, families, and societies." Parents and caregivers need to be emphasized to participate in the early stimulation and intervention programs. The nurses play a major role in teaching physical and mental health in the antenatal and postnatal period, this influence the health and well-being of the baby before and after the birth. Parents should be taught by the health-care workers to promote the children's' development, as from the scientific perspective. "Sensory Motor Stimulations" are the most cost-effective and integral part of the "Early Intervention program," further there was a positive link found between early stimulation and child development, parental self-efficacy, and developmental progress in the young children. "Inadequate parenting" and poor stimulations may lead to developmental disturbance in the children. The literatures indicate that teaching the early intervention concepts to the parents of young children can improve their parenting skills, such interventions can improve "quality of life" and progress cognitive, motor, and social development in the children further reduce the "Neurodevelopmental Delays and Disabilities." Parents can stimulate all the developmental domains of the child through the multisensory stimulation. Parent or caregiver can stimulate the child by focus on eye-to-eye contact, touching, making sound, facial movements, teasing, stroking, gentle massage, gentle tilting. The child should be shown colorful clothing, ribbon, balloons, and toys. Whispering, playing melody, parallel tones, mild applause etc., must be introduced to the child. Nurses can impart training to the parents about importance of gross and fine motor stimulation in children such as positioning, "Early Tummy Time," support sitting, creeping and crawling, supported walking, passive and active exercises for all the joints, encouraging the child to perform grasping, holding, pincer grasping, pulling, and pushing. Further, nurses can educate the parents regarding early language and communication stimulation for the children such as, making sounds of bracelets, bangles, bells, animals, and talking continuously as a daily routine. This will help the child to get improved with language and communication quickly. Importance of early social stimulation such as imitation, pointing, joint attention, and "Mother-Child Games like Peek-a-Boo" and its cultural adaptations need to be encouraged. To promote the child's cognitive skills, parents can introduce the concept of sizes, shape, consistency, colors of the objects to the children. Parents should repeat these activities during the daily schedules such as bathing, dressing, and any other activities. Nurses need to recognize the child's and parental needs and abilities to arrange the "Parent Mediated Training Program" on early intervention. In general, nurses shall help the parents to get orient about "Parent Self Help Group" and child health-care facilities to make good use of community services and available resources to overcome the psychosocial issues and burden.
In conclusion, the data suggest that early interventions, stimulations, specialized medical care, and the use of appropriate equipment are the important factors to help the growing children to achieve maximum developmental benefits. Early intervention programs can be effectively incorporated into early childhood development programs through Parent Mediated Training. Nurses are found to be in the appropriate place to enhance the parental skills in providing early intervention program for the children with or at risk of having developmental delays and disorders.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Poon JK, LaRosa AC, Pai GS. Developmental delay timely identification and assessment. Indian Pediatr 2010;47:415-22.
Rosenberg SA, Zhang D, Robinson CC. Prevalence of developmental delays and participation in early intervention services for young children. Pediatrics 2008;121:e1503-9.
Grantham-McGregor SM, Fernald LC, Kagawa RM, Walker S. Effects of integrated child development and nutrition interventions on child development and nutritional status. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014;1308:11-32.
Coleman PK, Karraker KH. Maternal self-efficacy beliefs, competence in parenting, and toddlers' behavior and developmental status. Infant Ment Health J 2003;24:126-48.
Hoghughi M, Speight AN. Good enough parenting for all children – A strategy for a healthier society. Arch Dis Child 1998;78:293-6.
Scherzer Al, Chhagan M, Kauchali S, Susser E. Global perspective on early diagnosis and intervention for children with developmental delays and disabilities. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2012 Dec;54(12):1079-84.
Girimaji DSC. Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Children with Mental Retardation. An Official Publication of Indian Psychiatric. 2008 Jan:43-67 https://www.indianjpsychiatry.org/cpg/cpg2008/CPG-CAP_05.pdf.
Hadders-Algra M, Boxum AG, Hielkema T, Hamer EG. Effect of early intervention in infants at very high risk of cerebral palsy: A systematic review. Dev Med Child Neurol 2017;59:246-58.
Reticena KO, Yabuchi VD, Gomes MF, Siqueira LD, Abreu FC, Fracolli LA. Role of nursing professionals for parenting development in early childhood: A systematic review of scope. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem 2019;27:e3213.