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Table of Contents
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 14-16

Association of aggression between tattooing and body piercing Among College Going Women


1 Assistant Professor, Vijay Marie College of Nursing, Hyderabad, India
2 Lecturer, Apollo College of Nursing, Ahemdabad, Gujarat, India
3 Staff Nurses, Vijay Marie Hospital, Hyderabad, India

Date of Web Publication9-Jul-2019

Correspondence Address:
Anumol Joseph
Assistant Professor, Vijay Marie College of Nursing, Hyderabad
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2231-1505.262414

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  Abstract 


Tattooing and body piercing have been empirically associated with several deviant behaviors and criminality. Body modification had eventually been associated with antisocial personalities, addictive behavior, substance abuse; rebellion, aggression, sadomasochism and other deviant personality traits. A study was conducted with the aim to find the association of tattooing and multiple body piercing with aggression among college going young women. The research design was exploratory survey design. The tool for data collection was a structured questionnaire. The study was conducted from St Francis Degree College for women, Hyderabad, on 60 women. Results revealed that there was moderate aggression (94.33%), followed by mild aggression(6.66%) reported among young women. There was association between religion and aggression. The study can be useful to identify aggressiveness in women and tendencies for tattooing and body- piercing and develop plan for modifications of risk behaviors.

Keywords: Aggression, Tattooing, Body-piercing


How to cite this article:
Joseph A, Gigy D, Antony FT, Rani E, Daniel L, Micheal J, Mathew R. Association of aggression between tattooing and body piercing Among College Going Women. Indian J Psy Nsg 2017;14:14-6

How to cite this URL:
Joseph A, Gigy D, Antony FT, Rani E, Daniel L, Micheal J, Mathew R. Association of aggression between tattooing and body piercing Among College Going Women. Indian J Psy Nsg [serial online] 2017 [cited 2023 Jun 1];14:14-6. Available from: https://www.ijpn.in/text.asp?2017/14/1/14/262414




  Introduction Top


The art of body piercing and tattooing are the two most common forms of what is known as body modification or body adornment. Although the history of body piercing dates back centuries, today’s body piercing often has a very different meanings and motivations. In fact, one’s self identity, a desire for beauty, and distinction from others are often the reasons cited the reasons cited for body piercings. However there have been several studies showing individuals who engage in body piercings have higher incidence rates of personality deviations[1]. Some social scientists believe that individuals who modify their bodies are motivated by rebelliousness, aggression and defiance. They believe that modifications of tattooing and piercing are a way of demonstrating their rejection of conformity to social standards and conventionality[2]. In the 20th century Western context, tattoos have been affiliated with lower social status and deviancy, including criminals and gang members, those of marginalized social and occupational status, such as prostitutes and sailors, as well as youth sub cultural groups and psychological patients. Body piercings have held connotations with homosexuality, involvement in sadomasochistic sexual subculture and youth subcultures, such as punk.[2]


  Materials and Methods Top


An exploratory quantitative research design was used to study 60 women subjects from St Francis College for women studying undergraduate courses were selected by purposive sampling. The tool for data collection was a structured questionnaire, (r=1). The tool is divided into two categories. Part-A : It consists of items related to demographic variables such as age, religion, education, number of tattooed and multiple body pierced individuals, reasons for getting tattoo or piercing. Section B was formulated as per the levels of aggression. There were 40 questions in this section. There were both positive as well as negative questions with different scoring basis. The minimum possible score was 1 and maximum 200. The interpretation of the score in 4 categories is as follows: score of 1-50 is rated as no aggression, 51-100 as mild aggression, 101-150 as moderate aggression and 151-200 as severe aggression.


  Results Top


[Table 1] shows that majority of the tattooed and pierced young women come under the age group of 18-20 years(83.33%) ; followed by 15-17 years(8.33%) and 21 years and above (8.33%). with regards to religion, out of the 60 subjects 31(48.33%) were Hindus , 7 (16.66%) were Christians, 10 (11.66%) were Muslims and 12 (23.32%) were others. As per educational status 3(70%) were studying B.Com, 9(15%) in B.Vocational, 6(5%) B.A and 42(20.6%) in miscellaneous.
Table 1: Characteristics of College going Women (n=60)

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[Figure 1] that majority of the tattooed and pierced college going women reported moderate aggression 56 (94%); followed by mild aggression 4 (6%) and none reported severe or no aggression (0%).
Figure 1: Prevalence of aggression among college going women having tattoo and body-piercing

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[Table 2] the mean scores of tattooed and pierced college going women in each domains of aggression further the rank order of aggression levels showed that the highest modified mean score was found in ‘Physical aggression’ domain (3.27) whereas least modified mean scores were found in verbal aggression. The descending order of levels of aggression domain wise rank order was physical aggression domain 3.272, miscellaneous domain 3.153., indirect aggression domain 2.99, Anger domain 2.930, Hostility domain 2.916 and Verbal aggression domain 2.7.
Table 2: Domain wise Mean aggression scores and rank order of college going women having tattoo and bodypiercing (n=60)

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[Table 3] shows that there is signaficant association between levels of aggression and religion.
Table 3: Association between aggression scores and demographic variables of college going women having tattoo and body-piercing (n=60)

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  Discussion Top


A similar study was conducted by Ekinci[3] and the study result show that there was association of psychopathology with tattooing and body piercing among adolescents in Istanbul by the means of self-report questionnaires. Tenth, eleventh and twelth grade students from two high schools in Istanbul with a total number of 607 participated in the study. The Youth Self Report, Children’s Depression Inventory and a detailed semi-structured inquiry assessing tattooing, body piercing and some psychiatric and psychosocial variables were administered to the students. The prevalence of tattooing and body piercing were 4.8 and 7 %, respectively. The adolescents with tattooing and body piercing were found to have a higher frequency of alcohol and drug use, smoking, going to bars/night clubs and lower school grades when compared to those without tattooing and body piercing. Externalizing problems, mainly delinquent and aggressive behaviors were more prominent in the adolescents with tattooing and body piercing. Tattooing and body piercing in adolescents may be indicative of mental health risks. The present study highlighted that the majority of the tattooed and body-pierced young women reported moderate aggression 94.33%, followed by mild aggression 6.66% and none reported severe aggression and no aggression.

According to a study carried out by Tiggemann &Golder et al[4], 378 adults from London, UK, were asked about aggression and rebelliousness, 25.7% possessed at least one tattoo, without any difference in male and female youth and tattooed adults had significantly higher reactive rebelliousness, anger, and verbal aggression than non-tattooed adults. However, effect sizes were small and there were also no significant difference between-group differences in terms of proactive rebelliousness, physical aggression, and hostility. The present study findings showed that the rank order of aggression levels showed that the highest modified mean score was found in domain of ‘Physical aggression’ (3.27) whereas least modified mean scores were found in verbal aggression. The descending order of levels of aggression domain wise rank order was domain of physical aggression 3.272, domain of miscellaneous 3.153, domain of indirect aggression 2.99, domain of anger 2.930, domain of hostility 2.916 and domain of verbal aggression 2.7.


  Conclusion Top


Psychiatric nurses in particular, work with patients who have inadequate coping mechanisms tp deal with stress. Patients admitted to an inpatient psychiatric unit are usually in crisis, so their coping skills are even less effective. During these times of stress acts of physical aggression or violence can occur. Also nurses spend more time in the inpatient unit than any other disciples, so they are more at risk for violence and intervene effectively with patients before, during and after aggressive episode. This study can be useful in helping nurses to identify potentially aggressive clients and be an added bonus along with their professional training and skill while applying nursing process and also being safe at the same time.



 
  References Top

1.
Braithwaite, Stephens et al.The essentials of academic writing.Soka university of America: Wadsworth Cenage Learning Press.;2nd edition  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Mindy Parsons. Mental Health And Mental Disorders-An Encyclopedia Of Conditions Treatment And Wellbeing: Hogrefe and Huber Publishers;2006  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Ekinci et al.The Association of Tattooing/Body Piercing and Psychopathology in Adolescents.Community Mental Health Journal.2012, 48 (6): 798– 803.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Tiggemann &Golder et al,.Are Tattooed Adults Really More Aggressive and Rebellious Than Those Without Tattoos? [cited on 2015 September]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26439666  Back to cited text no. 4
    


    Figures

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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Figures
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