|Year : 2017 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 11-13
The experiences and coping strategies among primary care givers of PLHIV
Lecturer, Department of psychiatry, Willis F. Pierce Memorial Hospital, Wai-Satara, Maharashtra, India
|Date of Web Publication||9-Jul-2019|
Lecturer, Department of psychiatry, Willis F. Pierce Memorial Hospital, Wai-Satara
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
HIV infection is a global pandemic that continues to escalate in a number of countries worldwide. United Nations and World health organization reported that the global figure of people living with PLHIV ranges between 30.6 and 36.1 million in the year 2007. The present study was conducted to assess the level of experiences and coping strategies among primary care givers of PLHIV. A descriptive research design was adopted to assess the level of experiences and coping strategies among primary caregivers of PLHIV. About 60 primary caregivers of PLHIV were selected from District Hospital Chitradurga. The convenient sampling method was used to select the subjects. The result revealed that most of the primary care givers of PLHIV had no unusual experiences (76.67%) and good coping strategies (70 %) while caring for the PLHIV.
Keywords: Experiences, Coping strategies, PLHIV, Primary caregivers
|How to cite this article:|
Thorat S. The experiences and coping strategies among primary care givers of PLHIV. Indian J Psy Nsg 2017;14:11-3
| Introduction|| |
HIV is the abbreviation used for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. HIV attacks the body’s immune system. Normally, the immune system produces white blood cells and antibodies that attack viruses and bacteria. The infection fighting cells are called T-cell lymphocytes. Months to years after a person is infected with HIV, the virus destroys all the T-cell lymphocytes. This disables the immune system to defend the body against diseases and tumors. Various infections will be able to develop and these opportunistic infections take advantage of the body’s weakened immune system,.
Coping is defined as “the cognitive and behavioral efforts made to master, tolerate or reduce external and internal demands and conflicts among them. Problem focused coping, known as confrontive coping, is the strategy used by the individual to identify causative factors for an occurrence, and then devising means and ways of dealing with that in an effective manner.
Home-care program was started in North America and Europe when it was found that families had difficulty coping on their own with the demands of caring for people living with PLHIV. Primary caregivers are those individuals who provide practical help and nursing to people living with PLHIV at home. Typically these individuals are parents, siblings, a partner or friend of the patients. These individuals have no formal training in caring for the terminally ill, yet provide physical and emotional nursing and financial assistance to PLHIV. In extreme cases , as is the case with stages III or IV of the illness, these caregivers find themselves delivering services like bathing the patient, doing shopping for them, preparing meals, administering medication and taking them for regular check-ups.
Mcgrath and colleagues interviewed families who had one or more adult members with PLHIV in Kampala,Uganda, and found the impact of PLHIV had direct impact on family functioning including diminishing mobility, negatively impacting the family and economic well being .These outcomes caused heavy burdens for all family members. Care giving is a mentally and physically demanding task that takes its toll, not only in aching muscles and bones, but also in psyche and spirit. The caregivers need help to maintain quality of care and positive outlook towards PLHIV. Many caregivers go through periods of stress, depression and frustration. These are normal human responses .caregivers who receive regular emotional support are much more to be able to handle difficult decisions, situations and to help clarify needs of care receivers.
| Materials and Methods|| |
A descriptive research design was used on 60 primary caregivers of PLHIV , selected by convenient sampling technique in a District hospital, Chitradurga. A three point rating scale with 20 statements for each section was selected. The experiences and coping strategies were assessed by using structured interview schedule. The experiences and coping strategies questionnaire consisted of 20 items, the range of score was 0-40. The scores of 31-40 indicated good experiences and good coping strategies, the score of 11-30 indicated nothing unusual experience and medium coping and scores of 0-10 indicated bitter experiences and low coping strategies.
The data analysis was done with the help of descriptive and inferential statistics .The statistical tests used were mean, mean percentage, standard deviation and chi- square test
| Results|| |
[Table 1] shows that more than half of the subjects (53.33%) were 31-40 years old, among which most of them 36(60%) were females, only a few 10 (16.66%) were educated with degree and above, 76.66% belonged to Hindu religion. most of them were house wives 25 (41.66%) and maximum of subjects 56 (93.33%) had contact duration of 0-10 years. It is noticeable that there are about 34 (56.66%) subjects lived within the joint family. Most people lived in rural area 34 (56.66%) in which most of the people 34 (56.66%) earned the family income of Rs 5001-10000.And around 25 (41.66%) were wives of the patient.
As given in [Table 2] that the coping strategies of the primary caregivers were good, medium and low. Among which 42(70%) caregivers had medium coping strategies, about 7(11.67%) caregivers had low coping strategies and around 11(18.33%) caregivers had good coping strategies.
|Table 2: Category wise coping strategies used by primary caregivers of PLHIV n=60|
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[Table 3] reveals that 46(76.67%) caregivers had average experience, about 6(10%) caregivers had bitter experience and around 08(13.33%) caregivers had good experience.
|Table 3: Category wise types of experiences expressed by primary caregivers of PLHIV n=60|
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| Discussion|| |
PLHIV have had a great impact on society both as an illness and as a source of discrimination. So it’s a very great challenge for the primary caregivers of PLHIV to deal with. The findings in the present study show that the experiences of the primary caregivers were like good, average and bitter. Among which 46(76.67%) caregivers had average experience, about 6(10%) caregivers had bitter experience and around 08(13.33%) caregivers had good experience. The study findings are correlated with other research study conducted on caregivers of PLHIV, a study on care burden and self reported health status of informal women care givers of PLHIV in Kinshasa found that the burden of care for these women included high stress level, sever levels of isolation and low self reported health status and high levels of reported unhappiness.97 % of spouse caregivers said that taking care of PLHIV was difficult and 89% reported that care giving of PLHIV was very stressful. Although most family caregivers had to deal with these negative impacts, some care givers reported that they had positive experiences such as increasing their own emotional strengths and reducing family conflict.
The study findings on coping strategies of the primary caregivers reported that 42(70%) caregivers had medium coping strategies, about 7(11.67%) caregivers had low coping strategies and around 11(18.33%) caregivers had good coping strategies. The study findings is consistent with other research study conducted on caregivers of PLHIV, titled as a study on psychosocial problems and coping patterns of HIV sero-positive wives of men with PLHIV. The findings revealed that majority of the women had financial problems following this devastating diagnosis, the women also reported the role strain and increase in care giver burden.
| Conclusion|| |
The present study revealed that about 10% primary caregivers have bitter experiences while caring for the PLHIV, 76.67% primary caregivers have an average experiences while caring for the PLHIV and about 13.33% of primary caregivers have good experiences while caring for the PLHIV. Similarly 11.67% primary caregivers have low coping strategies while caring for the PLHIV, 18.33% primary caregivers have medium coping strategies while caring for the PLHIV, and 70% primary caregivers have good coping strategies Hence the study recommends that there should be efforts made to educate individuals about the non-stigmatizing fact and primary prevention. Good nursing practice and nursing education must also be included.
| References|| |
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[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]