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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 8-11

Audio-Video assisted humor on reduction of perceived stress among elderly


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, King Khalid University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2 Principal, Rass Academy College of Nursing Poovanthi, Sivagangi (dt) Tamilnadu, India

Date of Web Publication8-Jul-2019

Correspondence Address:
G Manasa
Assistant Professor, Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, King Khalid University
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2231-1505.262348

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  Abstract 


The present study was conducted to assess the perceived stress among elderly. The research design for the study was one group pre-test post-test design. A sample of 200 elderly persons were selected by using non- probability convenient sampling technique at Navajeevan Old age home, Tirupati. The tools used for conducting the study were a set of demographic variables and Standardized Cohen (1983) perceived stress scale. The subjects were administered audio video assisted humor for 30 days with pre and post assessment of perceived stress levels. Data were analyzed with the help of descriptive and inferential statistics. Among 50 elderly, majority 140 (70%) had moderate stress, 48 (24%) had severe stress and 12 (6%) had mild stress in the pre assessment of perceived stress levels. After the administration of audio video assisted humor, majority 136 (68%) had mild stress, 64 (32%) had moderate stress and none had severe stress in the post assessment of perceived stress levels. It represents that audio video assisted humor was effective in reduction of perceived stress levels among elderly people. There was statistically significant association between post assessment of perceived stress levels and the demographic variables such as financial assistance and frequency of visitors to the participant at p<0.01 level of significance.


How to cite this article:
Manasa G, Rani R. Audio-Video assisted humor on reduction of perceived stress among elderly. Indian J Psy Nsg 2017;13:8-11

How to cite this URL:
Manasa G, Rani R. Audio-Video assisted humor on reduction of perceived stress among elderly. Indian J Psy Nsg [serial online] 2017 [cited 2023 Jan 29];13:8-11. Available from: https://www.ijpn.in/text.asp?2017/13/1/8/262348




  Introduction Top


The last century has witnessed a rapid increase in the population of the elderly people in the developed and industrialized countries. This phenomenon is not restricted to the western world only, but many countries such as India are now feeling the impact of this transaction. This situation could be attributed to a combination of factors such as increase in age, longevity and decreased death rates due to advancements in the field of medicine, improvement of life expectancy at birth and enhancement in the average span of life. India ranks 4th in terms of absolute size of elderly population.[1]

Old age means reduced physical ability, declining mental ability, the gradual giving up of role playing in socio- economic activities and a shift in economic status moving from economic independence to economic dependence upon other's for support.[1]

The reduction in fertility level, reinforced by steady increase in the life expectancy has produced fundamental changes in the age structure of the population, which in turn leads to the aging population. India has the second largest number of elderly (60+) in the world as of 2001. The analysis of historical patterns of mortality and fertility decline in India indicates that the process of population aging intensified only in the 1990's. The older population of India, which was 56.7 million in 1991, is 76 million in 2001and is expected to grow to 137 million by 2021.[2]

Anything that causes change in the life causes stress. There are many changes going on in the lives of elderly.[3] The way which illness is conceived has undergone a revolution consisting in the recognition of the interaction between mind and body, and in the admission that the emotions and the personality have a substantial impact on functioning and health.[4] Stress may drain a person's reserve capacity physiologically, socially and economically, increasing vulnerability to illness and injury.[5] The major sources of stress are life changes, hassles, job settings, home life and acculturation.[6] The increased stress levels can lead to changes in psychological and physiological functioning. In addition to changes in the usual stress hormones such as ACTH, cortisol, epinephrine and nor epinephrine, many other messengers are influenced by exposure by stressors. Production and release of prolactin, growth hormone, insulin, glucagon, thyroid hormone and gonadotrophin can be affected by stress. Levels of neurotransmitters, neurohormones, cytokines and various cells in the immune system can also be affected by stress.[7]

Chokkanathan S (2009) conducted a study on resources, stressors and psychological distress among older adults in Chennai. Data was collected from 400 older adults of 65 yrs and above by using epidemiological studies depression scale and geriatric depression scale. Results showed that resources had an indirect, negative relationship with psychological distress, and stressors had a direct, positive effect on distress.[8]

Aruna Dubey, Seema Bhasin, et al (2011) conducted a study on Elderly living in Old Age Home and within Family set up in Jammu. Data was collected from 30 elderly women aged above 60 years from old age homes as well as a similar number from the family setups by using a specially designed interview schedule and observation technique. Results of the study revealed that most of the elderly felt the attitude of the younger generation is unsatisfactory towards them especially those who were in old age homes in terms of getting respect, love and affection which leads to stress in old age.[1]

Researchers at Edinburgh University have found that stress is the major cause of depression and Alzheimer's disease in old age. They have identified an area of the brain which shrinks in old age resulting in depression and Alzheimer's disease. The shrinkage of a region of the brain called the anterio cingulate cortex result in the release of high levels of stress hormones.[9]


  Materials and Methods Top


Using a non-probability convenient sampling technique data was collected from the elderly lived at Navajeevan Old age home, Tirupati, AP, India. The research approach adopted for this study was quasi experimental, which is the most appropriate for its practicability in real life situations. It has an advantage of feasibility and to a certain extent generalization. The research design selected for the present study to achieve objectives was one group pre-test and post test design. The research design includes comparison and evaluation of perceived stress levels before and after administration of audio video assisted humor. The tools used for conducting the study were a set of demographic variables and Standardized Cohen (1983) perceived stress scale. Audio video assisted humor was administered to the subjects for 30 days with pre and post assessment of perceived stress levels.

The tools used for the study were categorized into 2 sections.

Section-I: It consists of 15 questions to collect the demographic data of elderly people such as age, gender, religion, etc

Section-II: It consists of standardized Perceived Stress Scale which was developed by Cohen et al., (1983). It consists of 14 statements which were scored based on 5 point Likert scale. Among 14 statements 7 are reverse scored. (Question No.4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 13)

0 Never

1 Almost Never

2 Sometimes

3 Fairly Often

4 Very Often

The scores were interpreted in the following manner according to Cohen Perceived Stress Scale (1983):

Score between 0 – 18 (0% - 32%) reveals mild stress

Score between 19 – 37 (33% - 66%) reveals moderate stress

Score between 38 – 56 (67% - 100%) – Severe stress

Data was analyzed with the help of descriptive and inferential statistics.


  Results Top


The results of the study done among elderly (N=200) on their levels of perceived stress was depicted under the following tables

The data presented in the [Table 1] shows the perceived stress levels among elderly persons 140(70%) had moderate stress, 48(24%) had severe stress and 12(6%) had mild stress.
Table 1: Level of perceived stress in Pre-Test N=200

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The data presented in the [Table 2] shows that the stress levels among elderly are majority 136 (68%) had mild stress, 64(32%) had moderate stress and 0(0%) had severe stress. It represents that audio-video assisted humor is effective in reduction of perceived stress levels of elderly people.
Table 2: Level of perceived stress in Post-Test N=200

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[Table 3] shows that mean score 30.155 and standard deviation 11.659 obtained in the pre- test and a mean score 16.435 and standard deviation 9.239 were obtained in the post test for the perceived stress levels among elderly persons showed that there was a decrease in mean and standard deviation after the administration of audio video assisted humor for elderly persons.
Table 3: Mean, SD, T Value, and P Values

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  Discussion Top


The research study was done to assess the effectiveness of audio-video assisted humor on reduction of perceived stress among elderly at a selected old age home, Tirupati. The study was done with 200 elderly (60 years and above) in the Navajeevan Old age home, Tiruchanoor, Tirupati.

The first objective of the study was to assess the level of perceived stress among elderly persons. [Table 3] showed that 12(6%) of the elderly had mild stress, 140(70%) had moderate stress and 48(24%) had severe stress.

The result of the present study was supported by earlier study conducted by Chokkanathan S (2009) on Resources, stressors and psychological distress among older adults in Chennai. Data was collected from 400 adults among 65 yrs and above. Results showed that resources had an indirect, negative relationship with psychological distress, and stressors had a direct, positive effect on distress[8].

The second objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of audio video assisted humor on reduction of perceived stress among elderly persons. [Table 3] showed that 136(68%) had mild stress, 64(32%) had moderate stress. It represents that audio video assisted humor was effective in the reduction of perceived stress levels among elderly.

The results of the study were supported by earlier study conducted by Bennett M P et al., (2003) on the “effect of mirthful laughter on stress and natural killer cell activity”. Data was collected from 33 healthy adult women by stress arousal check list. Humor response scale and chromium release natural killer cell cytotoxic assay before and after which experimental subjects viewed a humorous video while subjects in the distraction control group viewed a tourism video. Results were showed that stress decreased for subjects in the humor group compared with those in the distraction group. The study concluded that humor shows reduce stress and improve natural killer cell activity[10].

The third objective of the study was to find out the association of the effect of audio video assisted humor among the elderly with their demographic variables on reduction of perceived stress. There was statistically significant association between post assessment of perceived stress levels and the demographic variables such as financial assistance and frequency of visitors to the participant at p<0.01 level of significance. So there is need to improve the use of humor in the community area especially for the geriatric group and make them understand how humor is useful in reduction of stress along with other stress management techniques.

The present study states that there is statistically significant difference between pre-test and post-test perceived stress levels among elderly persons. The perceived stress levels in the pre-test that was 6(3%) of the elderly had mild stress, 70(35%) had moderate stress and 24(12%) had severe stress. The post test results showed that 68(34%) had mild stress, 32(16%) had moderate stress and 0(0%) had severe stress. It represents that audio video assisted humor is effective in the reduction of perceived stress levels among elderly.


  Conclusion Top


The research study was done to assess the effectiveness of audio-video assisted humor on reduction of perceived stress among elderly at a selected old age home, Tirupati. The study was done with 200 elderly (60 years and above) in the Navajeevan Old age home, Tiruchanoor, Tirupati.

There was no statistically significant association between post assessment of perceived stress levels and the demographic variables such as age of elderly persons, gender, religion, marital status, education, occupational status, residence, number of children, residence area of children, duration of stay in old age home and elderly persons suffering with illness.. There was statistically significant association between post assessment of perceived stress levels and the demographic variables such as financial assistance and frequency of visitors to the participant at p<0.01 level of significance.



 
  References Top

1.
Aruna Dubey, Seema Bahasin, Neelima Gupta and Neeraj Sharma.” A study of elderly living in Old age Home and within the Family set up in Jammu. Stud Hom Com Sci.2011; 5(2): 93-98.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Dr. Daizy Kujur, Rajesh Prakash Ekka. Socio- economic status of Elderly people in India. International Referred Research Journal. 2010; Vol- II: 3-6.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Gail Hendrickson, Eileen McLaughlin. Stress in the Elderly available at www.healthopedia.com/stress-cend-sen.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Sapolsky, R. M. Madrid : Alianza Editorial. 2008; 105-109.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Gail W Stuart. Principles and Practice of Psychiatric Nursing. 8th Edition. New Delhi. Elsevier. 2005; 690,704-705.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Barry O Smith, Psychology Science and Understanding. McGraw Hill Publishers. First edition. 1998;515-516  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Mary P.B, Cecile A.L. Humor and laughter may influence health. Journal of Evidence based Complementary Alternative Medicine. 2006 Mar; 3(1): 61-63.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Chokkanathan S. Resources, Stressors and Psychological distress among older adults in Chennai, India. Soc Sci Med. 2009 Jan; 68(2): 243- 250.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Laughter The Best medicine: The Health benefits of Humor. Available at http://www.helpguide.org/life/humor-laughter- health.html.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Benett MP, Zeller JM, Rosenberg L, McCann J. The effect of mirthful laughter on stress and natural killer cell activity. AlternTher Health Med. 2003 Mar-Apr; 9(2); 38-45.  Back to cited text no. 10
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
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